Medieval Studies

Encyclopedias & Dictionaries

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The Catholic Encyclopedia. Ed. Charles G. Herbermann. 17 vols. (New York, 1913-1922). Online.


The Coptic Encyclopedia. Ed. Aziz S. Atiya. 8 vols. (New York, 1991).


Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ed. Joseph R. Strayer. 13 vols. (New York, 1982-1989).


The Encyclopedia of Islam. Ed. H. A. R. Gibb et alii. 11 vols. (Leiden, 1954-2009).


The Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones et alii. 15 vols. (Detroit, 2005).


Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Ed. André Vauchez. 2 vols. (Chicago, 2000). Online.


Lexikon des Mittelalters. Ed. Robert Auty et alii. 9 vols. (Munich; Zurich, 1977-1999).


The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. 3 vols. (New York, 1998).


Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward Craig. 10 vols. London; New York, 1998). 

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By Subject


Broughton, Bradford B. Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry: Concepts and Terms. (New York, 1986).


Nolan, Cathal J. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. 2 vols. (Westport, CT, 2006).


Dizionario degli istituti de perfezione. Ed. Guerrino Pellicia & Giancarlo Rocca. 10 vols. (Rome, 1974-).


Encyclopedia of Monasticism. Ed. William M. Johnston. 2 vols. (Chicago; London, 2000).


Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Richard K. Emmerson & Sandra Clayton-Emmerson. (New York, 2006).


Medieval Archaeology: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Pam J. Crabtree. (New York, 2001).


Medieval England: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Paul E. Szarmach et alii. (New York, 1998).


Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Ed. William W. Kibbler et alii. (New York, 1995).


Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia. Ed. John M. Jeep. (New York, 2001).


Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Gerli. (New York, 2003).


Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Sean Duffy. (New York, 2005).


Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Josef W. Meri. (New York, 2006).


Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Christopher Kleinhenz. (New York, 1993).


Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Norman Roth. (New York, 1993).


Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Phillip Pulsiano. (New York, 1993).


Trade, Travel, & Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. Ed. John Block Friedman & Kristen Mossler Figg. (New York, 2000).


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Language Dictionaries

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Andrews, E. A. A Latin Dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin Dictionary: Rev., enl., and in great part rewritten by Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short. (Oxford, 1958).   Online.


Du Cange, Charles du Fresne, sieur. Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis. 10 vols. (Graz, 1954).


Niermeyer, J. F. & C. van de Kieft. Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus. 2 vols. (Leiden, 1960-).


R. E. Latham. Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources (London, 1975-).


Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. 10 vols. (Leipzig, 1900-).


Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford; London, 1968-1982).





An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, based on the Manuscript Collections of the Late Joseph Bosworth. Ed. T. Northcote Toller. (London, 1973). Online.


Middle English Dictionary. Ed. Hans Kurath & Sherman Kuhn. 11 vols. (Ann Arbor, 1952-). Click here to enter a custom description.^$^Click here to enter a custom description.^$^green arrow image Return to Top





A Greek-English Lexicon, compiled by Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott. (Oxford, 1968). Online.


The New Testament Greek-English Dictionary. Ed. Denis W. Vinyard. 6 vols. (Springfield, MO, 1990-1991).





The Anglo-Norman Dictionary.


DEAF: Le Dictionnaire étymologique de l'ancien français.


Godefroy, Frédéric. Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française: et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle. 10 vols. (Paris, 1937-1938).


Greimas, Algirdas Julien. Dictionnaire de l'ancien française: Le Moyen Age (Paris, 1994).


Hindley, Alan Frederick et alii. Old French-English Dictionary (Cambridge, 2000).





Grimm, Jacob, Wilhelm Grimm et alii. Deutsches Wörterbuch. 16 vols. (Leipzig, 1854-).





Zoëga, Geir Tómasson. A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (Toronto, 2004). Online.


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Craigie, William A.  A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue: from the Twelfth Century to the End of the Seventeenth. 12 vols. (Reprint of the 1937 Oxford Edition; Chicago, 2002).





Alonso Pedraz, Martín. Diccionario medieval español: desde las glosas emilianenses (s. X) hasta el siglo XV. 2 vols. (Salamanca, 1986).





Thomas, R. J. A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. 4 vols. (Cardiff, 1967).


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Blackburn, Bonnie J. & Leofranc Holford-Strevens. The Oxford Companion to the Year (Oxford; New York, 1999).


Cappelli, Adriano. Cronologia, cronografia e calendario perpetuo (Milan, 1969).


A Handbook of Dates. Ed. C. R. Cheney. (Cambridge; New York, 2000).


Chronology of the Medieval World, 800 to 1491. Ed. R. L. Storey & Neville Wiliams (New York, 1973).


Dershowitz, Nachum & Edward M. Reigold. Calendrical Calculations (Cambridge; New York, 1997).


The English Calendar, by Ian MacInnes.


Handbook of British Chronology. Ed. E. B. Fryde et alii. (London, 1986).


Mellersh, N. E. L. Chronology of the Ancient World, 10,000 B. C.  to A. D. 799 (London, 1976).


Peterson, Susan Lynn. Timeline Charts of the Western Church (Grand Rapids, 1999).


Poole, Reginald Lane. Medieval Reckonings of Time (London, 1918).


Richards, E. G. Mapping the Time: The Calendar and its History (New York, 1999).


Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World. Ed. Chris Scarre. (Washington, 1993).


Ware, R. Dean. "Medieval Chronology: Theory and Practice." In Medieval Studies: An Introduction. Ed James M. Powell. 252-277.(Syracuse, 1992).


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Anderson, Charles S. Augsburg Historical Atlas of Christianity in the Middle Ages and Reformation (Minneapolis, 1967).


An Historical Atlas of Islam = Atlas Historique de I'Islam. Ed. Hugh Kennedy. (Leiden; Boston, 2002).

The Atlas of the Crusades. Ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. (New York, 1991).


Atlas of Medieval Europe. Ed. Angus Mackay & David Dichburn (London; New York, 1997). Online.


Beinart, Haim. Atlas of Medieval Jewish History (New York, 1992).


Hill, David. An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Toronto,; Buffalo, 1981).


An Historical Atlas of Scotland c. 400-c. 1600. Ed. Peter McNeil & Ranald Nicholson. (St. Andrews, 1975).


Haywood, John. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings (London; New York, 1995).


Hooper, Nicholas. Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: the Middle Ages, 768-1487 (Cambridge; New York, 1996).


Jotischky, Andrew. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World (London; New York, 2005).


Kostam, Angus. Atlas of Medieval Europe (New York, 2000).


McEvedy, Colin. The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (London; New York, 1992).


McKitterick, Rosamond. Atlas of the Medieval World (New York, 2004). 

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Bischoff, Bernhard. Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Trans. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín & David Ganz. (Cambridge, 1990).


Boyle, L. Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction (Toronto, 1984).


Brown, Julian.  A Palaeographer's View: The Selected Writings of Julian Brown. Ed. Janet Bately et alii. (London, 1993).


Brown, Michele P. The British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts: History and Techniques (Toronto, 1998).


Clemens, Raymond & Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies (Ithaca, 2007).


Derolez, Albert. The Palaeography of Gothic Manuscript Books: from the Twelfth Century to the Early Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 2003).


Jackson, D. The Story of Writing (New York, 1981).


John, James J. "Latin Paleography." In Medieval Studies: An Introduction. Ed. James M. Powell. 3-81 (Syracuse, 1992).


Knight, S. Historical Scripts (London, 1984).


Parkes, M. B. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West (Berkeley, 1993).


Steffens, Franz. Paléographie latine: 125 fac-similés en phototypie accompagnés de transcriptions et d'explications avec un exposé systematique de l'histoire de l'écriture latine. Ed. Remi Coulon. (Rome, 1982). Online.


Thompson, E. M. An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford, 1912).


Grieve, H. E. P. Examples of English Handwriting, 1150-1750 (Essex Record Office, 1954).


Ker, N. R. English Manuscripts in the Century after the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1912).


Hector, L. C. The Handwriting of English Documents (London, 1958).


Newton, K. C. Medieval Local Records: A Reading Aid (London, 1971).


Parkes, Malcolm B. English Cursive Book Hands 1250-1500 (Oxford, 1969).


________. Their Hands Before Our Eyes: A Closer Look at Scribes (Aldershot, Hants; Burlington, VT, 2008).


Roberts, Jane. Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London, 2005).


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Abbreviationes™. The first database of medieval Latin abbreviations. It is a great tool for deciphering and transcribing medieval Latin manuscripts.


Cappelli, Adriano. Lexicon Abbreviaturarum. Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane (Milan, 1961).


Martin, Charles Trice. The Record Interpreter: A Collection of Abbreviations, Latin Words and Names Used in English Historical Manuscripts and Records (Reprint of the 1910 London edition; Chichester, 1982).


Traube, L. Nomina Sacra (Munich, 1907).





Destrez, J. La Pecia dans les manuscrits universitaires du XIIIe et XIVe siècle (Paris, 1935).


Johnston, E. Writing & Illuminating, & Lettering (London, 1908).


Kenyon, F. G. Books and Readers in Ancient Greece (Oxford, 1951).


Roberts, C. H. & T. C. Skeat. The Birth of the Codex (London, New York, 1983).

Shailor, Barbara A. The Medieval Book: Catalogue of an Exhibition at the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library (New Haven, 1988).





Alexander, J. J. G. Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work (New Haven; London, 1992).


Backhouse, Janet M. The Illuminated Manuscript (London, 1979).


Brown, M. P. Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts: A Guide to Technical Terms (Malibu; London, 1994).


Online Glossary of Manuscript Terminology, The British Library.


De Hamel, C. A. A History of Illuminated Manuscripts (London, 1994).


________. Scribes and Illuminators (Toronto; Buffalo, 1992).



Palaeography Tutorials


An Introduction to Palaeography, University of Leicester.

Latin Palaeography at the National Archives, 1000-1400.

Latin Palaeography at the National Archives, 1500-1800.

Materiali Didattici per la paleografia latina, Università degli Studi di Cassino


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Biographies: France

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Archives biographiques françaises [microform] (London, 1988-1990).


Dictionnaire de biographie française. Sous la direction de J. Balteau, M. Barroux et M. Prévost, avec le concours de nombreux collaborateurs. 19 vols. (Paris, 1933-).


Nouvelle biographie générale depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours, avec les renseignements bibliographiques et l'indication de sources à consulter. 46 vols. (Paris, 1855-1866).

Biographies: Great Britain & Ireland

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British Biographical Archive. Microfiche Edition. Ed. Laureen Baillie. (Munich, New York, 1984-).


PASE: Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England. "PASE is a database which aims to cover all the recorded inhabitants of England from the late sixth to the end of the eleventh century. It is based on a systematic examination of the available written sources for the period, including chronicles, saints's Lives, charters, libri vitae, inscriptions, and coins.


Tyerman, Christopher. Who's who in Early Medieval England, 1066-1272 (Mechanicsburg, PA, 2001).


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